UNESCO has adopted three international treaties and several regional treaties that have focused directly on education. International treaties are the Convention Against Discrimination in Education (1960); The Protocol establishing a mediation and public service commission to resolve disputes that may arise between States Parties to the Convention Against Discrimination in Education (1962); Convention on Technical and Vocational Training (1989). Regional contracts are agreements for the recognition of studies, diplomas and university degrees. A party`s consent to a contract is void if it has been issued by an agent or entity without the power to do so in accordance with the national laws of that state. States are reluctant to investigate the internal affairs and processes of other states and, therefore, a “clear violation” is necessary, so it “would be objectively obvious to any state dealing with the issue.” At the international level, there is a strong presumption that a head of state has acted within his own authority. It seems that no contract has ever really been cancelled. [Citation required] Education was not explicitly mentioned in the Treaty establishing the League, although some countries supported its accession at the peace conference that established the treaty. Others felt that education was primarily an internal issue. Nevertheless, at its first session in 1920, the League`s General Assembly adopted a resolution calling on the League`s (executive) Council to consider a closely related issue of “international intellectual cooperation” that supporters of the resolution (Belgium and France) consider extremely relevant to the development of a spirit of understanding, cooperation and peace between nations. The following year, the League established an International Commission for Intellectual Cooperation, made up of eminent figures from the sciences and humanities of different countries, to advise the Council on what governments could do to promote international cooperation between scientists, artists, philosophers, writers and other groups of intellectuals in order to promote the league`s overall objectives. Initially, international law did not accept any contractual reservations and rejected them, unless all parties accepted the same reservations. However, in order to encourage as many states as possible to join the treaties, a more straightforward reserve rule has been established.
While some treaties still explicitly prohibit any reservations, they are now generally accepted to the extent that they are not incompatible with the objectives and objectives of the treaty. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which commits its parties to setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. Recognising that developed countries are the main culprits for the high levels of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, due to more than 150 years of industrial activity, the protocol imposes a greater burden on developed countries, based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities”. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and came into force on 16 February 2005.