With regard to the Irish border issue, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is annexed to the agreement and defines a return case position that will only enter into force in the absence of evidence of other effective arrangements before the end of the transitional period. If this is the case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s external common law and Northern Ireland will remain in the internal market aspects until such a manifestation is achieved. None of the parties can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are necessary.  On 23 January 2020, the UK Parliament approved the draft agreement of the time by implementing rules (European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020). Following the signing of the agreement, the British Government adopted, on 29 January 2020, Great Britain`s instrument of ratification was issued and deposited.   The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after consent of the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union entered into force on 31 January 2020 at 11 p.m GMT, the date on which the Withdrawal Agreement entered into force in accordance with Article 185. The 599-page Withdrawal Agreement covers the following main areas: At the European Council, the United Kingdom and the European Union reached an agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union. The revised Withdrawal Agreement and the Political Declaration were discussed and approved at the European Council on 17 October 2019. The UK has started formal withdrawal negotiations by formally announcing to the European Council its intention to leave the EU. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political declaration and replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards.
According to Sam Lowe, a fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute settlement mechanisms.  In addition, the mechanism for a level playing field has been moved from the legally binding Withdrawal Agreement to the Political Declaration and the line in the Political Declaration that “the UK will consider aligning itself with EU legislation in relevant areas” has been deleted.  The Brexit Withdrawal Agreement officially entitled “Withdrawal Agreement of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community” is a treaty signed on 24 January 2020 between the European Union (EU), Euratom and the United Kingdom , which sets out the conditions for the United Kingdom`s exit from the EU and Euratom. The text of the treaty was published on 17 October 2019 and is a renegotiated version of an agreement published six months earlier. . . .